Geological Services, Inc. provides a broad range of professional services to municipalities, private industry, developers, lending institutions, earth resource consultants, and the legal community.  The firm has demonstrated technical expertise in the following areas:


PA DEP Act 2 Site Closure 

  • Statewide Health Standard
  • Site Specific Standard
  • Background Standard
  • Pathway elimination evaluation
  • Existing Project Technical/Peer review
  • Site Characterization/Remedial Investigation studies
  • Non-Used Aquifer Determination


Real Estate and Natural Resource Development Project Support

  • Nitrate loading studies
  • Preliminary wetlands delineation
  • Ground water resource availability estimation
  • Groundwater impact assessment (neighboring properties/sensitive areas)
  • Client representation at public meetings and hearings (local, county, state)
  • Expert testimony


  Groundwater Modeling/Statistical Analyses

  • Ground water flow path mapping
  • Contaminant fate and transport modeling
  • Hydrologic budget analyses
  • Contaminant source area/Time of release determination
  • PA DEP ACT 2 Risk/Pathway elimination assessment
  • Contaminant recovery system time to completion/Site remediation costs
  • Statistical plume stability/Recovery time evaluation
  • Act 2 Non-Used Aquifer Dertermination
  • Expert witness services


Contaminated Site Restoration

  •  Delineation of soil and ground water contamination
  •  Soil and ground water contaminant remediation
  •  Remedial system design and design optimization
  •  Numerical contaminant fate and transport modeling
  •  Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies (RI/FS)
  •  Underground Storage Tank (UST) removal and closure
  •  Ground water monitoring network design and installation
  •  Regulatory agency negotiations
  •  Expert witness services 


Ground Water Resource Management

  •  Regional ground water flow simulation
  •  Basin and sub-basin maximum safe yield evaluation
  •  Aquifer testing and evaluation
  •  Ground water resource exploration and development
  •  High capacity municipal and industrial well siting, construction and permitting
  •  Well head protection zone delineation and program development
  •  Municipal grant application preparation and submittal
  •  Development of regional and local ground water resource management programs
  •  Basin/sub-basin Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping