Representative Projects

Geological Services, Inc. has completed more than two hundred separate projects including design, construction and permitting of a high capacity wellfield  for a major central Pennsylvania foods company, design and construction, operation and oversight of dozens of contaminated soil and ground water site cleanups, development of regional ground water wellhead protection and water supply management programs as well as smaller projects involving assessment of nitrate loading and groundwater availability in support of residential subdivision projects.

GSI has also been the consultant of record on a number of US EPA Superfund and PA DEP Chapter 245 Underground Storage Tank (UST) closure projects, including closures under both the PA DEP Act 2 Statewide Health and Site Specific Standards. In addition, GSI has provided expert technical services to the Pennsylvania Underground Storage Tank Indemnification Fund (USTIF) in the capacity of third party/peer review involving evaluation and review of some two dozen projects involving numerous other independent environmental consulting companies throughout the State of Pennsylvania.

Shrewsbury  Borough

Ground Water Management/Well Head Protection Program; York County, Pennsylvania


  • Ground Water System of the Year - 2001;  Shrewsbury Borough Well Head Protection Plan; Pennsylvania Rural Water Association
  • 2001 Planning Award; Shrewsbury Borough Well Head Protection Plan; York County Planning Commission; York, Pennsylvania
  • 2004 Water Resource Management; Shrewsbury Municipal Water Company - Outstanding Leadership in Water Resource Management; US EPA Region 3, Washington, D.C.


West Lebanon Township Water Authority

Impacted Municipal Well Emergency Response/PCE Contaminant Source Determination; Lebanon County, Pennsylvania


Bob Ward Companies

Municipal Well Siting, Construction and Permitting, Aquifer Testing, Streamflow Passby Monitoring System Design/Construction; York County, Pennsylvania


Lower Allen Township

Municipal Non-Used Aquifer Determination, PA DEP Act 2 Site-Specific Closure; Cumberland County, Pennsylvania



Archer and Greiner, P.C. : Contaminant Source Identification, Atlantic County, New Jersey:

This project was undertaken on behalf of a confidential client implicated in association with the Pomona Oaks Superfund Site as the cause of ground water contamination of an aquifer used as the sole drinking water supply for a large subdivision located on the New Jersey coastal plain.  If found responsible, the client could have been liable for over five million dollars in remediation costs. Fortunately, Geological Services personnel were able to conclusively identify the source of contamination and prove the clients innocence by the use of a detailed numerical ground water flow and contaminant transport model.  The model was constructed using data collected by others during the Superfund action. The study led to identification of actual contaminant source and the release of the client from cleanup liability.

New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection: Contaminated Municipal Well Field Restoration,  Lakehurst, New Jersey

Following contamination of a major municipal water supply due to release of some 1000 gallons of gasoline from a nearby service station, Geological Services personnel were called upon to find the most cost-effective means by which the water supply could be restored.  Originally, well field replacement was considered the only viable alternative. However, following construction of a detailed numerical contaminant transport model, a program of soil and ground water remediation was developed which eliminated the need for well field relocation.  This innovative approach resulted in cost savings on the order of one million dollars.  Geological Services personnel received a letter of commendation from the State in recognition of the technical excellence of the work completed on the project.

Kirkpatrick and Lockhart, P.C.: Numerical and Geostatistical Evaluation of Hydrogeological and Geochemical Conditions, Keystone Landfill Superfund Site, Adams County, PA.

Geological Services personnel designed and led a comprehensive evaluation of the hydrogeology, geochemistry, and contaminant transport dynamics surrounding a Superfund landfill site for a major corporation named as a Principal Responsible Party (PRP) under the CERCLA (Superfund) Act. The project included review of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical data base to determine the impacts of synthetic organic and inorganic chemicals on surface and ground water surrounding the landfill, collection of soil samples from the landfill and surrounding area to establish background RCRA Metals concentrations, and comprehensive statistical evaluation of EPA contractor sampling protocol relative to the veracity of the data collected from the site.  The geochemical evaluation involved isolation of the leachate particulate phase, followed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive mineralogical analyses and the design and execution of bench scale sorption testing. The results of the geochemical study were used in conjunction with statistical and geostatistical evaluation of the site ground water chemistry data base to demonstrate the absence of impacts on off-site ground water. The data were further used with finite difference numerical modeling developed by Geological Services personnel to evaluate potential flow paths of contaminated ground water leaving the landfill, and to provide a quantitative evaluation of the site RI/FS prepared by EPA Contractor. This element of the project led to the development of a significantly more cost-effective set of remedial alternatives involving fewer wells, reduced pumping rates and increased leachate capture.

Major Electronics Manufacturer (client confidential): Soil and Ground Water Remediation, Northern Dauphin County, Pennsylvania

This project included the investigation of hydrogeological conditions affecting contaminant migration, delineation of plume geometry, identification of contaminant source areas, design and implementation of a combined ground water recovery and vacuum extraction system, and evaluation of remedial system efficiency through the analyses of pumping test and ground water monitoring data.  Additionally, contaminant transport velocities were estimated using numerical solute transport modeling, and a considerable amount of non-invasive geophysical techniques including terrain conductivity and seismic refraction were employed and ground water flow paths and areas of contaminated soil were identified using color infrared aerial photography and regional and local fracture system analyses.  Restoration of environmental conditions at the site was accomplished by excavation of some 400 cubic yards of tetrachloroethene contaminated soil, and by the construction and operation of a contaminant recovery system that involved soil vapor extraction, contaminated ground water capture, and flushing of contaminated soils by reinjection of treatment system effluent

F.O. Day Paving Company: Evaluation of Hydrologic Impacts and Design of Quarry Dewatering System; Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

Geological Services personnel provided a comprehensive evaluation of geologic and hydrologic conditions at a proposed 300 acre quarry pursuant to permit preparation and submittal. The project included pumping test design and implementation, detailed geologic and structural evaluation, development of preliminary dewatering system design, installation of monitoring wells, and construction of a numerical ground water flow model for the prediction of potential quarry impacts and the design of optimal dewatering system active during quarry operations. The project also included active participation and client representation at public meetings associated with the permitting process. Project results were presented to audiences ranging from local and state hearing boards, congressional representatives, and the Supreme Court of West Virginia. A major innovation developed to satisfy the concerns of adjacent land owners was a system for the reinjection of ground water extracted during the course of quarry dewatering.  This system allowed for quarry dewatering while minimizing effects on local ground water levels and the regional hydrologic balance.

Major Electronics Manufacturer (client confidential): Phase I and II Pre-divestiture Environmental Site Assessments, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina:

Geological Services personnel were contracted to complete Phase I and Phase II ESAs in a number of States as part of a program of corporate reorientation.  ESA surveys included review of state regulatory agency files, detailed site reconnaissance and investigation, informed party interviews, soil and ground water sampling and analyses, air photo review, site soil vapor survey, hydrogeological evaluation and environmental audit, ground water monitoring well site selection and well construction. Additionally, non-invasive testing of underground heating oil storage tank was completed using an innovative approach that eliminated the need to take the tanks out of service during testing.  This was especially important since the testing was completed during the winter, while the building was under full occupancy.